You always gain 1 Energy per damage received (unaffected by rank).
The Energy gain triggers even if the damage received is zero.
The Adrenaline gain is in the form of adrenaline points, not adrenaline strikes. It takes roughly 25 points to gain 1 strike of adrenaline.
Commonly used on bonders. Life Bond is cast on all party members, and Balthazar's Spirit on the monk maintaining it; each time damage is redirected to the monk, they gain Energy (which fuels the maintenance cost of multiple Life Bonds). This method works even if the redirected damage is reduced to zero.
Also a common staple of farming builds, since solo farmers are usually getting pummeled by many damage sources at once while using Energy-expensive techniques to stay alive and do damage.